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Explore national intangible capital NIC / Results, news and details



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NIC on the week / Archive


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Week 30/2016: Summer Recap: Week 13: Innovation Union / & Restructuring Archive
Week 21/2016: HUAWEI GCI / NIC impact in GDP formation, growth and recovery / Asia Tigers
Week 20/2016: Faster loading / HUAWEI GCI 2016 / City intangibles matters / EU Innovation
Week 19/2016: NIC 2016: Framework and calculations
Week 18/2016: Innovativeness of countries / / Social Progress Imperative - and beyond
Week 17/2016: Productivity growth / WICI / Amsterdam / IEF 2016 / Navigating like a Norwegian
Week 16/2016: InnoFrugal / Brexit / Future Education / NIC Country reports / Israel snapshots
Week 15/2016: "Measuring GDP" or "Measuring, what impacts GDP"?
Week 14/2016: Innovation Union / Panama Papers / Brazil / Innovation Union wrap up
Week 13/2016: Turkey wrap up / Education / EU28: Innovation today and tomorrow?
Week 12/2016: Turkey making its way towards EU
Week 11/2016: Is Finland "the sick man in Europe"?
Week 10/2016: India's key to future success: Observe NIC developmental stages and paths!
Week 09/2016: Future of EU: EU28, UK, Brexit or Exit?
Week 08/2016: Norway in crisis as price on oil plunges?
Background: ELSS production function approach
Background: Example / European Union intangible capital NIC / Selected countries 2012
Background: Example / Finland-Sweden comparison 2001-2014
Background: Example / SWOT analysis / Finland 2012
Background: Example / Revealed comparative NIC advantage / RCNA Finland 2012
Background: Example / NIC economic impact Tipping point estimates / NIC TP 2012




NIC 2016 / Short descriptions, previews and background





Does intangibles matter?




Indeed: Intangibles matter!

National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function (ELSS: Edvinsson, Lin, Ståhle P. & Ståhle S.), a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

NIC background
The ELSS production function approach / Article published in Journal of intellectual capital 2015
48 NIC 2015/16 indicators / descriptions

NIC research 1: Importance of conceptual accuracy
NIC research 2: Notes on augmenting the production function
NIC research 3: Notes on calculating NIC investment efficiency

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.



Story1: Intangibles are a major driver in GDP formation


National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function, a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.

>> Find out more about NIC and GDP formation, build up <<

Preview trends, details and maps

How well is your country utilizing intangibles and potentials hidden in those? Login to see.



Story2: Intangibles boost GDP annual growth, i.e. growing welfare


National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function, a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.

>> Find out more about NIC and GDP growth <<

European union in comparison / 2012

How are intangibles boosting your country and are effective one prioritized? Login to see.



Story3: Intangibles empowers economic recovery (example 2008-2009 financial crisis)


National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function, a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.

>> Find out more about how NIC boosts recovery <<

Finland - Sweden comparison / 2012

How are your country benefiting intangibles in the recovery process? Login to see.



Story4: There are strong and weak NIC drivers and they vary by country and situation


We are working on a show case for you showing how "strong impact of a driver in USA differ from impact of same driver in China" ...

National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function, a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.

>> Find out more about how NIC SWOT analysis is performed <<

Simple SWOT analysis / Finland 2012

Weak and strong NIC drivers in your country: Are they identified? Login to see.



Story5: Investments in intangibles impact the economy with varying time lags


We are working on a show case for you showing how impacts come fast or slowly and showing that these time lags are, not only driver, but also country specific ...

National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function, a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.

Are fast impacting intangibles in your country pin-pointed? Login to see.



Story6: Some intangible drivers are cost effective in your country, others not


We are working on a show case for you showing how "Expensive in India may be cheap in Germany" and how cost efficiency for same driver vary by country, time and situation ...

National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function, a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.

RCA / Finland vs Sweden 2012

Which are the most cost effective intangible drivers in your country: Is money spent wisely? Login to see.



Story7: Intangible drivers saturate and turn into pillars and new drivers emerge


We are working on a show case for you showing how some drivers turn into neccessary pillars of the knowledge economy sustaining, but not boosting, the economy while new drivers emerge, boosting the economy. Decline of NIC impacts may even drive the whole country towards a tipping point ...

National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function, a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.

Tipping point estimates / 2012

How well are emerging new drivers identified in your country? Is there a risk for a tipping point? Login to see.



Story8: Intangible drivers impact a large number of general economic drivers such as employment, development of export etc.


We are working on a show case for you showing how different NIC drivers impact GDP growth, employment, domestic spending and government debt formation (among others) with varying time lags and how this impact is country specific and situational ...

National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function, a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.

What are the full impacts of NIC drivers, intangibles, in your country? Login to see.



Story9: National intangible capital NIC as driver of good national policies and global strategies


We are working on a show case for you showing how all these stories put together can be used to outline action plans and good policies for your country and its future development ...

National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function, a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.

Want to look closer at data that really matters for your country and its future development? Login to see.



We are working on more "Head lines" show casing importance and value of NIC


We are working on a show case for you ...

National intangible capital (NIC) explains major parts of world GDP growth and GDP formation.

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function, a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).

Indeed: Intangibles matter! And it matters even more to know exactly how they impact our economy.

And where are your country on the NIC map? Login to see.






Data tools and views helping you analyse and understand NIC data


bimac NIC / Complexity of national IC disclosed

Analysis tools and visualizations make use of geo-, bar-, trend-, radar- and scatterplot- charts together with tables, lists, heath- and tree- maps.

Analysis views and templates combine these to give you informative and effective views analysing the data and making it easy for you to spot trends, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the development of your country's effective use and build-up of intangible capital resources and potential.

We mainly use Tableau software to do the hard work, but also other software tools are used.




bimac NIC / Distribution of world national intangible capital NIC 2014

Geo Map / charts


Select year and variable to compare for all or just some countries in database.

Color scales indicates value of variable for different countries and when hovering over a country details are shown in a popup window.


Take preview

Maps  are a familiar way to grasp the whole picture



Working with maps you at the same time get the feel, wether the country is close to you, close to Europe or a country far away. Perhaps the country is a country you should study in more detail. And how will changes affect the neighbouring region, other countries of interest?



bimac NIC / NIC percentage impact in GDP formation 2014 / Finland benchmarks

Bar charts


Select year(s) and variable(s) to compare for one or several countries in database.

Bar height indicates value of variable and when hovering over a bar details are shown in a popup window.


Take preview

Bar charts helps more exact analysis / comparisons


1) You can easily select countries or varibles to compare at specific times. Comarisons may reveal features not so obvious, when using other tools.
For example: Compare performance for Sweden 2014 from different perspectives: Index values, impacts in GDP and cost / investment efficiency of drivers.

bimac NIC / NIC index levels 2014 / Sweden Click to enlarge When focusing on indexes it looks as if human and process capital (NHC and NPC) would under perform for Sweden when compared to Scandinavia in general.

2) This is also confirmed, when we look at Sweden 2014 from the impact point of view: Human and process capital is under performing.

bimac NIC / NIC percentage impact in GDP formation 2014 / Sweden benchmarks Click to enlarge However ... .. .

3) Focusing on investment and cost efficiency Sweden discloses its superiority: Sweden is by far the most effective Nordic country in utilizing its national intangible resources, its potential.

bimac NIC / NIC cost and investment efficiency 2014 / Sweden benchmarks Click to enlarge Find out more and find out what the situation and developments are in 2016 by loging into NIC 2016 database.

And intrestingly, did you notice? :: When focusing on impacts in GDP and efficiency, 2014, EU28 outperform the Euro zone! One (small) exception: NRC impacts, e.g. impacts of renewal capital / innovativness and R&D 2014.




bimac NIC / NIC impact in GDP growth 2001 - 2011 / Denmark

Trend / Line charts


Select desired time span and variable(s) to compare for one or several countries in database.

Line height indicates value of variable for given time span and when hovering over a line details are shown in a popup window.

Growing / declining trends can easily be seen and also abnormal anomalies / crisis behavior.


Take preview

Trend  charts helps you to spot and compare changes over time


1) Trend lines are useful when you want to look into change over time. Comarisons may reveal features not so obvious, when using other tools.
For example: Look into how NIC impact in world GDP formation developed during and after the financial crisis.

bimac NIC / NIC percentage impact in GDP formation 2001 - 2014 / World NIC, NIC59 Click to enlarge Taking the world in perspective it seems that the crisis had only minor causations disturbing the overall trend, contnuing growth.
In fact: Looking closer positive impacts can be noted for human, process and renewwal capital and the only big looser was market capita.
In other words: The crisis de facto launced a positive global reaction towards utilizing intangibles as driver.

2) This positive reaction can also be seen when focusing on Sweden:

bimac NIC / NIC percentage impact in GDP formation 2001 - 2014 / Sweden Click to enlarge After a short dip 2008-2009 process and renewal capital, not only recover, but perform with a better growth rate. At the same time human and market capital are back on original growth track.
However ... .. .

3) Not every country:

bimac NIC / NIC percentage impact in GDP formation 2001 - 2014 / Finland Click to enlarge Crisis 2008-2009 hits Finland and only renewal capital shows a positive response like for Sweden.
Looking at "before and after" all the other drivers, human, market and process capital, flatten to zero growth. As a consequence impacts of overall NIC impacts in GDP formation stagnates as also renewal capital impacts (temporarily) ceases to grow.

4) Financial crisis 2008-2009 hit hard, but there are remarkable survivors: Denmark:

bimac NIC / NIC percentage impact in GDP formation 2001 - 2014 / Denmark Click to enlarge Denmark turns crisis into opportunity and moves to new levels of NIC impact and growth. And, even if the major leap has been made, the new growth trends for human, process and renewal capital are better than befor the crisis.
Where do we stand today? Find out more about world development today by loging into NIC 2016 database..




bimac NIC / NIC development of index levels, impacts and efficiency 2014 / Scandinavia benchmarked

Scatter / Bubble chart


Select year(s) and variable groups x and y (and z) to plot for one or several countries in database.

X-horisontal axis, Y-vertical axis and Z size

Position x-y and size z of marker indicates value of variable x-y-z for one or selected countries and when hovering over a marker/bubble details are shown in a popup window.


Take preview







National intangible capital, NIC, indicators and groups


bimac NIC / National intangible capital NIC / NIC ELSS Capital groups and context

National Intangible Capital NIC consists of four basic dimensions according to the model by Edvinsson & Malone (1997). This model has been further developed, now consisting 48 different indicators representing the four main categories.


bimac NIC / National intangible capital NIC / NIC ELSS Structure and capital groups

Intangible Capital is Human Capital ,Market Capital (networks), Process Capital (infrastructure), and Renewal Capital (innovation).

Through dynamic mutual interaction with Financial Capital these factors of intangible capital affect the economic growth.


You find a thorough and in-depth introduction to the ELSS production function approach here:


The ELSS production function approach / Article published in Journal of intellectual capital 2015

48 NIC 2015/16 indicators / descriptions



Human Capital:

Capacity and capability of people

Skilled labor (NHC1)
Employee training (NHC2)
Secondary education up enrollment (NHC3)
Pupil-teacher ratio (NHC4)
Public expenditure on education (NHC5)
15-64 years old population (NHC6)
Qualified engineers (NHC7)
Students PISA performance (NHC8)
Human Development Index (NHC9)
Gender equality (NHC10)
Years of education (NHC11)
R&D researchers (NHC12)



Market Capital:

Global business attractivity

Corporate tax encouragement (NMC1)
Cross border venture (NMC2)
Openness of culture (NMC3)
Transparency of government policies (NMC4)
Image of your country (NMC5)
Capital availability (NMC6)
Trade to GDP ratio, exports + imports (NMC7)
Current account balance %GDP (NMC8)
Investment flows %GDP (NMC9)
Country credit rating (NMC10)
Investment risk (NMC11)
Globalization index (NMC12)



Process Capital:

Operational functionality of the nation

Business competition environment (NPC1)
Government efficiency (NPC2)
Computer per capita + Mobile subscribers (NPC3)
Internet subscribers + Broadband subscribers (NPC4)
Convenience of establishing new firms +start up days (NPC5)
Goods & services distribution efficiency (NPC6)
Overall productivity (NPC7)
Unemployment % + Youth unemployment % (NPC8)
Consumer price inflation (NPC9)
Health & environment (NPC10)
Corruption (NPC11)
Freedom of speech (NPC12)



Renewal Capital:

Capacity for knowledge creation, exploitation and innovation

Business R&D spending (NRC1)
Basic research (NRC2)
R&D spending/GDP (NRC3)
R&D US$ per capita (NRC4)
IP right protection (NRC5)
Utility Patents/ R&D expenditure (NRC6)
Cooperation between corporations and university (NRC7)
Scientific articles (NRC8)
Patents per capita (USTPO+EPO) (NRC9)
Entrepreneurship (NRC10)
Development & application of technology (NRC11)
Venture capital (NRC12)



Financial capital variables

Tangible resources, money

GDP per capita at PPP (NFC1)
Government surplus/deficit % of GDP (NFC2)
Real government debt % growth rate (NFC3)
Foreign Debt % of GDP, government and business (NFC4)
US$ currency exchange rate, or weighted US$ & Euro (NFC5)
Long term interest rate (NFC6)
Effective country govt long term debt interest rate (NFC7)
Gross fixed capital formation per capita (NFC8)
Stock market capital formation as % of GDP (NFC9)
FDI inwards % of GDP (NFC10)
FDI outwards % of GDP (NFC11)
Value of special natural and financial resources /services, export – import as % of GDP (NFC12)






61 countries coverd 2016

The countries are selected based on availability of reliable data to cover the 48 NIC indicators. List of countries are updated according to the available data.


Countries

NIC database covers Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China Mainland, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Latvia, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, USA and Venezuela.


Regions and economic groups

Regions: Benchmark averages (Population, workforce and GDP weighted and direct) calculated for EU, EMU (Euro zone), Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, G8, G20, PIIGS, BRICS and ASEAN countries in database.

Additional: World, developed countries and developing countries in five (5) categories by level of GDP/capita and/or NIC advancement.






Short background and research team

Intangibles disclose new perspectives to explain hidden economic drivers. By introducing the ELSS production function (ELSS: Edvinsson, Lin, Ståhle P. & Ståhle S.), a new theoretically and computationally justified method we have been able to catch and disclose those impacts. By augmenting the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators, we have managed to uncover 77% of hidden economic drivers (TFP, total factor productivity) in developed economies and to calculate the effect of intangible capital on GDP and growth.

The results of our analysis show that intangible capital accounts for some 45% of world GDP. The figure for the United States is 70.3% and for the European Union 51.6 %. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7%, with NIC contributing to 72.5% of GDP in Sweden, 69.7% in Finland and 67.6% in Denmark (2014).


bimac NIC / NIC research team

"ELSS" refers to Edvinsson, Lin, Ståhle P. & Ståhle S.: Leif Edvinsson (Edvinsson & Malone, 1997) is creator of the IC model at corporate level, and Carol Lin is creator of the NIC model and the initial database of 40 countries (statistics mainly based on IMD Country Competitiveness data), which was further developed by Carol Lin, Pirjo Ståhle and Sten Ståhle.

The main framework for measuring the impact of national intellectual capital NIC on GDP formation and GDP annual growth was developed within the SAIKA project: Intellectual Capital as a Driver of National Economy, Finland Futures Research Centre, University of Turku. The project was funded by the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation TEKES during 2010-2011 / 2012-2013. The head of the project was Professor Pirjo Ståhle and the head researcher was Chief analyst Sten Ståhle.





Leif Edvinsson

Since 2000 Leif Edvinsson has been the world’s first Professor, adjunct at Lund University on Intellectual Capital, and a leading edge on Intellectual Capital, IC. He was the worlds first corporate director of Intellectual Capital at Skandia in Stockholm, Sweden. He has been a key contributor to the theory of IC and oversaw the creation of the worlds first corporate Intellectual Capital Annual Report. Leif has been recognised with several awards for his pioneering work on IC. In 1996 the American Productivity and Quality Centre (USA) and Business Intelligence (UK) recognized him for the pioneering work on IC, and in 1999 Leif was noted the Most Admired Knowledge Award on Knowledge Leadership. In 2004 Leif was awarded The KEN Practitioner of the Year from Entovation International, where he also is an E 100. In 1998 Leif received the prestigious Brain Trust “Brain of the Year” award (UK), and in 2006 he was listed in a book by London Business Press, as one of The 50 Most influential Thinkers in the World. Leif is a cofounder and Chairman of The New Club of Paris, focused on the Knowledge Economy initiatives, and an associate member of The Club of Rome. In January 2006, he was also appointed professor adj. at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.



Leif Edvinsson


Carol Yeh-Yun Lin

Carol Yeh-Yun Lin is a distinguished professor and researcher in Intellectual Capital, IC, Department of Business Administration at National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan; Taiwan Intellectual Capital Research Center (TICRC). Carol has achived several awards; the most recent is the Outstanding Teaching Award (2012), Outstanding Professor Award (2011), Taiwan Ministry of Education award; and Outstanding National Science Council Researcher (2011 & 2012). Carol is also a board member of the New Club of Paris.

bimac NIC / Carol Lin at bimac nic research

Carol Yeh-Yun Lin


Pirjo Ståhle

Pirjo Ståhle is visiting professor at the Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research, Aalto University School of Engineering. Her main areas of expertise are knowledge management, innovations and the measurement of intellectual capital. Pirjo Ståhle moved to her current position from the University of Turku, Finland Futures Research Centre, where she served as professor from 2004 to 2013. At the Turku Futures Research Centre she was in charge of research projects concerned with the economic impacts of intellectual capital in 48 countries.

Pirjo Ståhle is often mentioned as a pioneer of Finnish knowledge management. She was the country's first-ever Chief Knowledge Officer (Sonera 1998-2001), first Professor of Knowledge Management (Lappeenranta University of Technology 2001-2007), and her book on Knowledge Management was the first Finnish book on this subject.

bimac NIC / Pirjo Ståhle at bimac nic research

Pirjo Ståhle


Sten Ståhle

Chief analyst at Business Information Analysis and Consulting, bimac, Helsinki, Finland. He is a prominent researcher studying and modeling the impact of intangible capital on economic performance and competitiveness. Main focus areas are the measuring of intangible capital efficiency and determining the underlying inter dependencies of various intellectual capital components. Since mid 90’s he has been coworking in several publications (e.g. Intangibles and national economic wealth – a new perspective on how they are linked (2015), Towards measures of national intellectual capital: an analysis of the CHS model, 2012, Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC): A critical analysis (Outstanding paper published in the Journal of Intellectual Capital in 2008), 2011, National Intellectual Capital as an Economic Driver: Perspectives on Identification and Measurement, 2008) and in several projects (e.g. Educational Intelligence System EIS, 2006). Currently Sten is continuing his work within the ELSS project studying and modeling impacts of national intangible capital on economic growth and socio-economic change.

bimac NIC / The home of bimac NIC

Sten Ståhle



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